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Author Guidelines

  1. Types of articles

Manuscripts submitted to DRJ should be original studies that were not previously published or simultaneously submitted for publication elsewhere, except for an abstract of an oral or poster presentation.

  • Research papers are manuscripts that present a novel contribution to a research area; manuscripts should have a maximum of 30 pages double-spaced, and use a type font of Times New Roman size 12.
  • Review papers are accepted provided that they give a systematic discussion and overview of trends, analyze future implications of the previous studies, and are often written by leaders in a particular discipline. Reviews commonly cite no less than 60 research articles, typed double-spaced in Times New Roman font size of 12, and should be no more than 40 pages (including the list of references).
  • Notes are short reports on high-impact results with significant observations that do not warrant full-length papers. Notes must have considerable potential significance for a wide readership that will likely stimulate further research in the field. They should be no more than 20 pages including references two or three tables and one or two figures.
  • Policy Briefs present a concise summary of a particular issue that can help readers understand and likely make decisions about government policies. Policy briefs may give recommendations on the best policy option based on summaries of relevant research, or even further argue for courses of action for government policymakers and others who are interested in formulating or influencing policies. Policy briefs should be no more than 1,500 words or 5 double-spaced pages.
  • Letters and Commentaries offer writers an opportunity to present their critical observations on current professional issues, social problems, or policy matters. Submissions are expected to build on existing literature about the topic. The maximum length of the manuscript should not be more than 1,000 words or 3 double-spaced pages.
  • Viewpoints provide readers an opportunity to respond substantively to an article previously published in DRJ and to challenge the results or positions in that article. Such papers intend to stimulate dialogue within the profession. If a manuscript is accepted, the author of the original article will be asked to respond to the viewpoints expressed in it. If the original author declines to respond, a manuscript may be shortened and included as a Letter to the Editor. The maximum length of the manuscript should not be more than 1,000 words or 3 double-spaced pages.
  • Editorials are opinion articles written by the editors of DRJ about important issues concerning science or social science, particularly its interface with wider society. Sometimes, these Editorials announce and describe a new or amended editorial policy. The manuscript should not be more than 2 typeset pages.
  1. Submission of Manuscript

Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been published before, is not under consideration for publication anywhere else, its publication has been approved by all co-authors, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work has been carried out. Manuscripts should be sent to the address below as an e-mail attachment or submitted directly to the Editor-in-Chief as an electronic copy. All submitting authors should use the IMRAD format, follow a double-spaced manuscript formatting, and use APA for citation including the use of tables, statistics, and designing figures. Once received, all manuscripts will be subjected to a double-blind peer review process by two or more experts in the field.


The review process will include plagiarism detection to assess the originality of submitted manuscripts. The Editor-in-Chief retains the right to reject a manuscript without review or any submission that shows significant overlap with existing databases of published scholarly works.

  1. Permissions

Authors wishing to include figures, tables, or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) for both the print and online format and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.

  1. Manuscript Preparation

Authors are encouraged to read and download sample articles at the Davao Research Journal website at the when preparing their manuscript. The required layout uses a 1-inch margin on all sides, must use letter size, serif font style of 12 point Times New Roman.

Text Formatting

  • Manuscripts should be submitted in a Word file.
  • Use italics for scientific names and sparingly on local terms for emphasis.
  • Use the spreadsheet for making your tables and then insert it inside a two-row table, the above row should be used to insert the table number and table title while the other row will be used to paste the spreadsheet from Excel to make the tables.
  • Use the equation editor or Math Type for equations.
  • Do not use vertical bars in any of the tables, and use three horizontal lines for the table at most; two for the heading rows and 1 horizontal line for the end row. But in the case of multiple or long tables, you can add more horizontal lines every three or four rows.
  • Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently thereafter. Example: HYV for high-yielding variety, ANOVA for analysis of variance.
  • For scientific names, they should be completely spelled in the different sections of the paper but shorten the italicized genus name to the first capital letter followed by the species name the second time they are mentioned in the section of the paper.
  • Papers should be written in English, except if the paper needs to include local names or terminologies.
  • Use SI units and symbols. Use exponents instead of slash (ex. m s-1). All scientific units must be preceded by a space, for example: ‘... for 2.5 h at 50 °C’ and not ‘... for 2.5h at 50°C’.
  • Authors are required to include line numbering in their text file; the line numbering should be continuous on all pages.
  • Save your file in docx format or doc format (older Word versions).
  • Manuscript should be spell-checked and grammar-checked before submission to get away with trivial errors.
  • Texts must be left aligned and the right margins left uneven or ragged.
  • Indent the first line of every paragraph.
  • Always use double space except in the abstract where this uses single space.
  • Keywords must use up to five words excluding words already used in the title or abstract.
  • All references cited should follow the latest APA style of citation.

Title Page

The title page should include:

  1. A clear, concise, and informative title that reflects the content or result of the manuscript and should not be more than 15 words.
  2. Authors are those who have made substantial contributions to the research work. In case of multiple authorship, one author must be designated as the “Corresponding Author” with an asterisk. The corresponding author is the person to whom correspondence should be addressed. Corresponding authors must obtain all their coauthors' consent before submitting a manuscript for publication.
  3. Names and addresses of the institution of the authors should be provided including their email addresses and ORCID numbers upon submission.
  4. The e-mail address and ORCID number of the corresponding author should also be provided.

Figure 1. Example of title and author names in the DRJ manuscript


The abstract must not exceed 250 words and include only the most important aspects of the study. It should summarize what is the purpose of the study and the method/s used to achieve the goals of the study then provide the major findings at the end of the abstract and a very brief conclusion. The abstract should not contain any references, or undefined abbreviations, or be divided into multiple paragraphs. It must be one paragraph, single-spaced, and with a 0.5-inch indentation or one tab key formatting in your word processor.

List down 4 to 5 keywords, compound words, or phrases that indicate major subjects, concepts, or ideas in the paper must not be included in the listing. Keywords will be used in indexing the paper and facilitate the readers to be able to find the paper once published online.

This should contain an overview of the field of concern, provide a short description of the research problem, and be supported by citations from relevant literature. The objectives and hypothesis (optional) of the study are stated in the last part of the Introduction.

Materials and Methods
Specific materials and methods (standard or original) used in the study that are detailed enough for probable replication or adoption for future studies. Simplified steps or procedures should be stated and carefully described and if this is a published procedure, should be cited, including modifications if there are any. The study area and methodology used should be described clearly in this part of the paper including providing maps or steps whenever necessary for the understanding of the readers.

Figure 2. An example of the map of a study area provided by authors. Maps provide an overview and extent of where the studies were conducted.


Findings should be consistent with the objectives of the study. Sub-captions should be the same if not similar to those used in the Materials and Methods section.

Cite sources in tables and figures when necessary
The table must also be cited in the text and should be numbered using Arabic numerals. Avoid using superscripted numerals in tables and figures where they might be misinterpreted as exponents. Instead, use superscripted letters like a, b, c, etc., for tables and figures. Footnotes to the table should be included where necessary as superscript lower-case letters with the text in Times New Roman, 9 pt. (Example: a, b, c have significant differences in concentration among stations). References to previous work presented in the table should also be included in the footnotes.

Figures, schemes, and illustrations. Graphics such as figures, schemes, and illustrations should be placed in the text and numbered sequentially using Arabic numerals. For the first submission of the manuscript, tables and figures must be cited within the text and must be placed close to the point where they are discussed within the text. However, for the revised version of the manuscript, tables and figures should be submitted in separate individual files. Authors are encouraged to use colored graphs and illustrations with high resolution. The description of the Figures should be placed below the illustration.

Figure 3. This is a table that follows the APA format, no vertical lines can be found which can distract the eyes, and few horizontal lines for the heading and the last line.

Below is an example of another table which contains more horizontal lines for combined information in one table.

Figure 4. This is an example of a table that contains more information than the previous one with two headings e.g. catch composition for fish species and the other is catch composition for shell species.


Below you can see other examples of a typical figure which are provided as examples from previous articles published in the DRJ.

Figure 5. This is an example of a panel figure where more than one graph is included in one Figure. This is typically used in survey-type or descriptive studies but also when presenting multiple photos.

Other points to consider in preparing Tables and Figures:

  1. Table and Figure captions should be written Figure 1. Text.
  2. Each table or figure should have a concise caption describing accurately what the figure depicts. Include the captions in the text file of the manuscript, not in the figure file.
  3. The graphics must be submitted as *.jpg or *.tiff files.
  4. They must have a minimum resolution of 600 dpi for good reproduction (revised
  5. Images from other authors’ work must be properly referenced and a letter of consent
    from the publisher must be submitted before the publication of the current manuscript.
  6. If any magnification is used in the photographs, indicate this by using scale bars within
    the figures themselves.


A discussion that is separate from the results section should be followed where clearly the findings of the study are discussed in relation to its broader context in the literature. This is the part where authors must be able to explain their findings or why their study should be providing better or more novel implications compared to the past if it diverges from an accepted hypothesis, the authors must be able to explain why this difference occurred as opposed to the accepted ones in the literature. Discussion should be done for integration purposes, i.e., within other results of the study or with reference to earlier studies. Recommendations can be included in the last part of the Discussion section.


These should include the summary and implications of the findings of the study.


Acknowledgments of people, grants, funding agencies, scholarships, etc. should be included in this section just before the references.

Literature Cited

For literature cited, follow the latest APA citation format and cite references in the text by name and year in parentheses. Some examples:

  • Negotiation research spans many disciplines (Jimenez, 2006).
  • This result was later contradicted by Trangia and Macusi (2023).
  • This effect has been widely studied (Zabala 1981; Calvez et al., 1995; Sumile and Ponce 2008; Maynawang et al., 2021).

Reference list

  • Authors' surnames are written first, followed by the first letter of the first name and middle initial (if applicable). A comma separates the author's surname and initials.
  • Only the first letter of the reference title must be capitalized. Proper nouns and genera of scientific names should also be capitalized.
  • Titles are not italicized. However, species names are italicized.
  • To save space, journal titles are abbreviated according to the ISO 4 standard. Proper abbreviations for all journals must be used. When the journal is not included in the list, then the journal name must be spelled out. For a complete listing of the standard abbreviations of a journal’s name please see:
    • List of Title Word Abbreviations at

Journal Article

Burin, D., Kilteni, K., Rabuffetti, M., Slater, M., and Pia, L. (2019). Body ownership increases the interference between observed and executed movements. PLOS ONE, 14(1), Article e0209899.

Prieto-Carolino,  A.,  Mediodia,  H.  J.,  Pilapil-Anasco,   C.,   Gelvezon,   R.   P.,   and Gabunada,  F.  (2016).  Gendered spaces in abalone fisheries in the Philippines. Asian Fish. Sci, 29, 1-13.

Rohe, J., Schlüter, A., and Ferse, S. C. (2018). A  gender lens on women’s harvesting activities and interactions with local marine governance in a  South  Pacific fishing community. Maritime Studies, 17, 155-162.

Trangia, M.L.C., and Macusi, E.S. (2023). Comparative performance of irradiated and non-irradiated carrageenan-based foliar fertilizers on the growth, yield, and pest incidence of pechay (Brassica rapa). Davao Research Journal (DRJ), 14(1), 94-107.

Zhao,  M.,  Tyzack,  M.,  Anderson,  R.,  and Onoakpovike,  E.  (2013).  Women as visible and invisible workers in fisheries:  A  case study of  Northern England. Marine Policy, 37, 69-76


Bergeson, S. (2019, January 4). Really cool neutral plasmas. Science, 363 (6422), 33–34.

Bustillos, M. (2013, March 19). On video games and storytelling: An interview with Tom Bissell. The New Yorker.


Guarino, B. (2017, December 4). How will humanity react to alien life? Psychologists have some predictions. The Washington Post.


Brown, L. S. (2018). Feminist therapy (2nd ed.). American Psychological Association.

Christian, B., and Griffiths, T. (2016). Algorithms to live by The computer science of human decisions. Henry Holt and Co.

Burgess, R. (2019). Rethinking global health: Frameworks of power. Routledge.

Schmid, H.-J. (Ed.). (2017). Entrenchment and the psychology of language learning: How we reorganize and adapt linguistic knowledge. American Psychological Association; De Gruyter Mouton.

Book chapter

Macusi, E.D., and Martinez-Goss, M. (2020). Preservation in fluids. In M.R.M. Goss, W.L. Rivera, NK. Torreta (Eds.), Methods in microalgal studies (pp. 87-94). Philippine Science Letters and University of the Philippines Los Banos.

Balsam, K. F., Martell, C. R., Jones, K. P., and Safren, S. A. (2019). Affirmative cognitive behavior therapy with sexual and gender minority people. In G. Y. Iwamasa and P. A. Hays (Eds.), Culturally responsive cognitive behavior therapy: Practice and supervision (2nd ed., pp. 287–314). American Psychological Association.


Australian Government Productivity Commission and New Zealand Productivity Commission. (2012). Strengthening trans-Tasman economic relations.

Canada Council for the Arts. (2013). What we heard: Summary of key findings: 2013 Canada Council’s Inter-Arts Office consultation.

Fried, D., and Polyakova, A. (2018). Democratic defense against disinformation. Atlantic Council.

Segaert, A., and Bauer, A. (2015). The extent and nature of veteran homelessness in Canada. Employment and Social Development Canada.

Blackwell, D. L., Lucas, J. W., and Clarke, T. C. (2014). Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2012 (Vital and Health Statistics Series 10, Issue 260). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Policy Brief

Bersaldo,  M.J.I.,  Llameg,  M.B.,  and Avenido,  P.M.  (2021).  Mangrove clam (Pegophysema philippiana) fishery status in Davao region [Policy brief]. Davao Research Journal, 12(5), 6-9.

Conference session

Macusi, E.D., Macusi, E.S., Bongas, H.P., Cayacay, M.A., Omandam, J.L., Sabino, L.L., Vidal, C., and Schüler, M. (2023, September 28-29). Typology of milkfish (Chanos chanos) farms: their operations, socio-economic viability, and production constraints. [Agriculture session]. 4th International Conference on Education, Environment, and Agriculture (ICEEA 2023), Central Bicol State University of Agriculture (CBSUA), Bicol, Philippines.

Fistek, A., Jester, E., and Sonnenberg, K. (2017, July 12–15). Everybody’s got a little music in them: Using music therapy to connect, engage, and motivate [Conference session]. Autism Society National Conference, Milwaukee, WI, United States.

Paper presentation

Maddox, S., Hurling, J., Stewart, E., and Edwards, A. (2016, March 30–April 2). If mama ain’t happy, nobody’s happy: The effect of parental depression on mood dysregulation in children [Paper presentation]. Southeastern Psychological Association 62nd Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, United States.

Poster presentation

Nallos, I.M., Peralez, C.P., Castro, M.M.C., Macusi, E.D. (2023, March 10-11). Fishers’ communication as a critical factor for catch and tuna traceability implementation among small-scale fishers in Davao Gulf, Philippines [Poster presentation]. National Research Council of the Philippines (NRCP), Pasay City, M.M., Philippines.

Unpublished dissertation/ thesis

Macusi, E.D. (2024). Fishers’ and fish aggregating devices (FADs): strategies and tactics, local ecological knowledge, and fisheries management [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Wageningen University and Research.

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