Davao Research Journal http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main <p>The Davao Research Journal is a multidisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal which publishes research and developmental reports in various fields of study. It is the official journal of the Davao Oriental State University (DOrSU). However, contributors from other institutions, universities and agencies including foreign authors are also welcome to submit their manuscripts. The journal is published at least once a year depending on the availability of reviewed reports in acceptable form. </p> en-US <p>DRJ is an open-access journal and the article's license is CC-BY-NC. This license allows others to distribute, remix, tweak, and build on the author's work, as long as they give credit to the original work. Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal/publisher non-exclusive publishing rights with the work simultaneously licensed under a https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.</p> editor.drj@dorsu.edu.ph (Prof. Edison Roi D. Macusi) dmnuyda@gmail.com (Mr. Darryl Nuyda, MM-TM) Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Improving Grade 7 students' news writing skills using worksheets assessed through online interviews http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/9 <p align="justify">This paper aimed to improve the news writing skills of grade 7 SPJ students by using the News Writing Worksheet as an instrument to correctly write the lead and the transition paragraphs of news story. The paper opted for a quasi-experimental one-group pre-test—post-test design. Data gathered were analyzed using paired samples t-test. Analysis of the data using paired-sample t-test indicates that there is a significant increase of post-test scores of 50 SPJ students. This indicates that the use of News Writing Worksheet is effective in improving the scores of SPJ students in writing the lead and transition paragraphs of a news story. This positive outcome was affirmed by the results of the of the interview of ten (10) participants who validated the use of the instrument. Results from the thematic analysis, showed that the News Writing Worksheet facilitated the acquiring of imaginative, self-directed, and informed comprehension by the SPJ students. In addition, it was revealed that pupils utilized technology to overcome problems encountered while completing the worksheet. These results were consistent with previous similar research.</p> Paulo Morales Copyright (c) 2023 Paulo Morales https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/9 Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Community structure of macroinvertebrates in protected and exploited areas of Baganga, Davao Oriental, Philippines http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/7 <p align="justify">Macroinvertebrates are vital in coastal marine environments, which function as ecologically (e.g., food chain) and socio-economically (e.g., income generation for coastal gleaners). Different anthropogenic activities, including unregulated gleaning, pose potential threats to the assemblages of macroinvertebrates. However, studies related to assessing and comparing the community structures of macroinvertebrates in protected and exploited areas are poorly documented in the Philippines. Hence, this study aims to provide valuable information to formulate proper fisheries management, including the protection and conservation of macroinvertebrates and their supporting habitats. Fishery-independent and fishery-dependent surveys were conducted in three coastal barangays of Baganga, Davao Oriental, Philippines: one protected (control site) in Ban-ao and two exploited (gleaning grounds) in San Victor and Kinablangan to determine macroinvertebrate community structure and document local gleaning activities. Seventeen (17) macroinvertebrates were recorded, comprising nine (9) mollusks, three (3) crustaceans, and five (5) echinoderms. Four species (4) were abundant in the study sites: <em>Dardanus </em>sp., <em>Monetaria annulus</em>, <em>Thalamita crenata</em>, and <em>Trochus maculatus</em>. The community structure of macroinvertebrates in both exploited areas was influenced by gleaning of the coastal residents, resulting in lower species richness, density, and diversity compared to the protected area where collection was highly restricted. There is a need to ensure the sustainability of gleaning in these areas by providing protection on the existing macroinvertebrates in the area through a formulation of local subsistence fisheries management.</p> Jay Mark Bantayan, Nezel Ann Lomoljo-Bantayan, Jhonnel Villegas Copyright (c) 2023 Jay Mark Bantayan, Nezel Ann Lomoljo-Bantayan, Jhonnel Villegas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/7 Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Performance of SEAGOP (Sea Garbage Obtaining Pump Bin) in Magapo, Mati City, Davao Oriental, Philippines http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/8 <p align="justify">The main purpose of this is to help address the problem of floating marine debris in the seawater of Magapo-3, Mati City, Davao Oriental, Philippines. This led the researchers to devise a version of Seabin V5 and called it, SEAGOP: Sea Garbage Obtaining Pump-bin. This model was made of light materials which can help maintain its balance and consist of sensors and SMS notification, which notifies the person in charge if the bin was already full. The test of SEAGOP for seven days, yielded 205 pieces of different waste materials, with the five most common floating marine debris: cellophane (31%), plastic wrappers (30%), leaves (8%), plastic bottles (6%), and face masks (5%). Furthermore, the results of the detection and SMS notification rate during the trials were 100% reliable. The device was further evaluated using the standard of ISO 9126 and resulted in an average of 4.68 functionality, 4.3 reliability, 4.9 usability, 4.6 efficiency, 4.46 maintainability, and 4.36 portability out of five. Results showed that SEAGOP performed well in collecting floating marine debris, detecting, and sending SMS notifications when the bin was full. This can be further upgraded and funded by the local government to help minimize floating marine debris in coastal areas of Mati City.</p> Kristal G. Entrino, Jaztin Lyka D. Inting, Francis Michael C. Marcelo, Ella Mariz T. Mapa, Allianah Paula P. Gonzales, Shiella Mae A. Largo Copyright (c) 2023 Kristal G. Entrino, Jaztin Lyka D. Inting, Francis Michael C. Marcelo, Ella Mariz T. Mapa, Allianah Paula P. Gonzales, Shiella Mae A. Largo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/8 Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Difficulties and Coping Strategies in Understanding Mathematical Concepts in a Private Higher Education in Tagum City, Davao del Norte, Philippines http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/10 <p align="justify">Understanding mathematical concepts involve developing an intuitive grasp of the underlying ideas and principles that govern mathematical operations and relationships. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the difficulties and coping strategies in understanding mathematical concepts. This study used an explanatory sequential research design through the collection and analysis of quantitative data followed by a qualitative inquiry. To collect data, the researchers developed questionnaires for the quantitative and qualitative inquiries, which were validated by external experts. The sample of the study for the quantitative part included conveniently selected 297 students from a private Higher Education Institution (HEI) in Tagum City, Davao del Norte, Philippines, in the academic year 2017-2018. In addition, seven (7) individuals among the respondents participated in the Key Informant Interviews (KIIs). This was followed by one session of Focus Group Discussion (FGD) which was also participated by seven first-year students enrolled during the second semester of S.Y. 2017-2018. Five skills areas were examined: number fact, arithmetic, language, informational, and visual. Based on the results, students find difficulties in understanding mathematical concepts, specifically in visualizing mathematical concepts and manipulating geometrical shapes and spaces meaningfully. The students also demonstrated difficulties in analyzing the problem, understanding the concept, identifying the correct solution, establishing the equation, and simplifying the expression. In addition, the students cope with the difficulties through perseverance, expert consultation, reading and studying, constant practice, and confidence building. Mathematics teachers are recommended to design need-based teaching strategies to optimize student learning.</p> Arrel Jay B. Velez, Divine Grace F. Dayaganon, Jayvee C. Robigid, Juzanni D. Demorito, Jhonnel P. Villegas, Dan O. Gomez Copyright (c) 2023 Arrel Jay B. Velez, Divine Grace F. Dayaganon, Jayvee C. Robigid, Juzanni D. Demorito, Jhonnel P. Villegas, Dan O. Gomez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/10 Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Seasonal Fluctuation of Nutrients and Primary Productivity of the Coastal Waters of Culaman, Malita, Davao Occidental http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/39 <p>The study was conducted to determine the nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentration of coastal water at Barangay Culaman, Malita, Davao Occidental between two seasons. One shot sampling was done during the rainy season on November 19, 2017, and November 26, 2017. It was also done during summer season on March 6, 2018, and March 11, 2018. Water samples were collected in the surface (5-10 cm depth) and subsurface (below 1m depth). Nutrients were analyzed in terms of their concentration expressed in mg/L, including ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate. Chlorophyll-a was included being the most reliable index of primary productivity in seawater. Nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and chlorophyll-a showed high concentration during rainy season while ammonia exhibited a high concentration during summer season. Further, nutrients were found in high concentrations from surface water compared to those from subsurface water. There were no significant differences in nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations between stations except for nitrate. In terms of its concentration between rainy and summer season, and between surface and subsurface waters, there were no significant differences in ammonia, nitrate, and phosphate.&nbsp; However, significant differences in the concentrations of nitrite and chlorophyll-a between rainy and summer season and between surface and subsurface water samples were observed.&nbsp; The prevailing levels of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity observed during sampling were found to be normal.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Pedro M. Avenido, Larife M. Garley, Michael Jeriel I. Bersaldo Copyright (c) 2023 Pedro M. Avenido, Larife M. Garley, Michael Jeriel I. Bersaldo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/39 Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Time Series Analysis of Mean Temperature using SARIMA: An Example from Davao Oriental, Philippines http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/91 <p style="text-align: justify;">In many practical disciplines, time series analysis, and forecasting—a technique that predicts future values by analyzing past values—play a substantial role. In this paper, the researchers analyze the monthly mean temperature in Davao Oriental from 2010 to 2022 using the \SARIMA (Seasonal Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average) technique. Data from January 2010 to May 2020 were used as the training data set, while data from June 2020 to December 2022 were used as the testing data set. The presentation includes a thorough overview of model selection and forecasting precision. The findings demonstrate that the suggested research strategy achieves good forecasting accuracy. The analysis reveals that the best model which was satisfactory to describe was SARIMA (0,1,3) (2,0,0) <sub>[12],</sub> and in the month of May 2023, the temperature will be 28.27964 degrees Celsius. In subsequent work, the researchers hope to expand the number of possible grid search parameter combinations. This method may lead us to models with improved predictive ability. The length of the training set may also affect forecasting accuracy, in addition to the SARIMA model's parameters. A follow-up study is needed to investigate both hypotheses.</p> Larry M. Ichon Jr., Jerd M. Dela Gente Copyright (c) 2023 Larry M. Ichon Jr., Jerd M. Dela Gente https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/91 Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Factors affecting the intentions to implement a “no plastic policy” in Cotabato City, Philippines http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/98 <p style="text-align: justify;">Plastic materials are one of the contributors to environmental problems. The detrimental effects of plastic pollution on the environment and human health are well established. Currently, the Philippines has been considered one of the countries which have high plastic loads which are mostly mismanaged. Although several measures and policies were already laid down, however, these were not properly implemented. Thus, determining the factors that may affect the proper implementation of pro-environmental policies is very important to mitigate the effects of plastic pollution. In this study, the factors affecting the intentions to implement the no-plastic policy among the junior high school students at Notre Dame University, Cotabato City were investigated. This study applies the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and employs Structural Equation Model (SEM) to determine the factors affecting the intentions to implement a no-plastic policy. A total of 210 students were randomly surveyed in this study. Results showed that attitude (ATT) and subjective norms (SN) were found to have no significant direct effect on implementing the no-plastic policy. School administrators and policymakers should come up with plans and programs that may boost the students’ attitudes and subjective norms to improve their intention to implement a no-plastic policy. The conduct further studies to increase the number of respondents and inclusion of tertiary students will help to validate the results of this study.</p> Katherine G. Suminguit, Rhea B. Piguing, Harris B. Lumogdang,  Aprelle Ann P. Torio, Christine V. Acuna, John Paul A. Catipay, Peter Jan D. de Vera Copyright (c) 2023 Katherine G. Suminguit, Rhea B. Piguing, Harris B. Lumogdang,  Aprelle Ann P. Torio, Christine V. Acuna, John Paul A. Catipay, Peter Jan D. de Vera https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/98 Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Comparative Performance of Irradiated and Non- Irradiated Carrageenan-Based Foliar Fertilizers on the Growth, Yield, and Pest Incidence of Pechay (Brassica rapa L.) http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/19 <p align="justify">This study evaluated and compared the effects of supplementing irradiated and non-irradiated carrageenan-based foliar fertilizers with the same source, Kappaphycus alvarezii, on the growth, yield, and pest incidence of pechay (Brassica rapa L.) plants, as well as to determine their profitability. The VitalGro Carrageenan Plant Growth Promoter (CPGP) and the Kappaphycus Drippings Foliar Fertilizer (KDFF) were used as the irradiated and the non-irradiated carrageenan-based foliar fertilizers, respectively. The experiment was laid out using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments: T<sub>1</sub> = 0 application (negative control), T<sub>2</sub> = Farmer’s Practice (positive control), T<sub>3</sub> = Farmer’s Practice + VitalGro CPGP, and T<sub>4</sub> = Farmer’s Practice + KD Foliar Fertilizer (KDFF), replicated four times. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze the data with the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) to compare differences in treatment means. Profitability was determined using cost and return analysis. Supplementation of VitalGro CPGP and KDFF exhibited comparable results in increasing the height (p = .000) and number of leaves (p =.008) of pechay plants. Various insect pests were detected throughout the experimentation, but the most damaging pest was the cabbage webworm (Crocidolomia binotalis) which was found to be highest (p = .000) in plants treated with the non-irradiated KDFF. While no pest repelling effects were observed in both the carrageenanbased foliar fertilizers, plants supplemented with VitalGro CPGP were noted to be the most tolerant and gained the highest Yield (p=.001) despite pest attack, thereby achieving the highest return of investment (ROI) at 94.86%.</p> Maria Lyca Trangia, Erna S. Macusi Copyright (c) 2023 Maria Lyca Trangia, Erna S. Macusi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 http://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/19 Tue, 27 Jun 2023 00:00:00 +0000