Davao Research Journal https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main <p>The Davao Research Journal is a multidisciplinary and peer-reviewed journal which publishes research and developmental reports in various fields of study. It is the official journal of the Davao Oriental State University (DOrSU). The journal seeks contributions from other researchers, and writers from various institutions, universities, and agencies including foreign authors are welcome to submit their manuscripts. </p> en-US <p>DRJ is an open-access journal and the article's license is CC-BY-NC. This license allows others to distribute, remix, tweak, and build on the author's work, as long as they give credit to the original work. Authors retain the copyright and grant the journal/publisher non-exclusive publishing rights with the work simultaneously licensed under a https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.</p> editor.drj@dorsu.edu.ph (Prof. Edison Roi D. Macusi) dmnuyda@gmail.com (Mr. Darryl M. Nuyda) Fri, 14 Jun 2024 05:13:17 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.13 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Decision-making skills and leadership effectiveness among public school administrators in Tarragona District, Davao Oriental https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/166 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study determined the influence of decision-making skills on leadership effectiveness among public school administrators in Tarragona District, Davao Oriental division. It employed a descriptive-correlational research method. Gathering data from 143 respondents, results revealed that female school administrators had (n=72) higher educational qualifications compared to their male counterparts (n=71). Most of the administrators were in their retirement age (x=54-60). They had moderate levels of decision-making skills, specifically in rational, intuition, dependent, avoidant, and spontaneous decision-making. In terms of leadership effectiveness, the school administrators were categorized as high in instructional programs, financial resource management, and school community relations while moderate level in staff administration and student services. There was a strong positive correlation between decision-making skills and the leadership effectiveness of the administrators in terms of their educational attainment. The direct effect of decision-making skills and the leadership effectiveness of public school administrators was categorically small in size. Among the fit indices for decision-making and leadership inventory skills, only Joreskog-Sorbom's Fit Index (GFI) was the only best-fit model. Parallel studies may be conducted by examining other aspects and the nature of variables related to decision-making skills and leadership effectiveness so that further assessments on the reliability and validity of the data in this research could be ascertained.</p> Naomi C. Quinal, Helina Jean P. Dupa Copyright (c) 2024 Naomi C. Quinal, Helina Jean P. Dupa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/166 Tue, 04 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Diversity, cover, shoot density, and distribution of seagrasses in the coastal areas of Gingoog City, Misamis Oriental, Philippines https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/167 <p style="text-align: justify;">Seagrass is a vital part of the coastal environment because it offers refuge, food, and protection for a variety of animals. Despite its ecological and economic importance, seagrass meadows are under threat globally due to natural and human-caused activities. This study aims to establish baseline data on seagrass diversity, composition, cover, shoot density and distribution in Gingoog City, Misamis Oriental that would serve as a useful reference for future initiatives in management and conservation measures. A total of six species of seagrasses were identified in two sampling stations namely: <em>Thalassia hemprichii, Halophila ovalis, Enhalus acoroides, Halodule pinifolia, Halodule uninervis, </em>and<em> Syringodium isoetifolium</em>. These two sampling stations exhibited a mixed stand of seagrass community. The result of diversity indices showed that barangay Lunao was more diverse than barangay San Juan (<em>H'</em>=0.99). Shoot density and distribution of seagrass showed preferences in different regions of the seagrass beds where <em>Thalassia hemprichii</em> species was widely distributed and dominated in Barangay Lunao while <em>Halodule pinifolia</em> has some restrictions in its distribution with high shoot density in the high intertidal region of the seagrass of Barangay San Juan. This high density of seagrass especially on <em>Halodule pinifolia</em> in a disturbed area is important in the coastal ecosystem because it maintains the seagrass diversity, actively stabilizes sediment, improves water quality, and supports a vast number of the marine organisms in this disturbed area of the coastal water of barangay San Juan. </p> Jhun Rheil H. Molina, Michael Jeriel I. Bersaldo Copyright (c) 2024 Jhun Rheil H. Molina, Michael Jeriel I. Bersaldo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/167 Fri, 07 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Regenerative futures: Why and how to move forward as a Philippine State University? https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/169 <p style="text-align: justify;">This paper discusses the concept of regenerative futures as an agendum for leadership at the Davao Oriental State University (DOrSU) in the Philippines. The paper highlights the need for a paradigm shift to reimagine and rethink “sustainability” from a restorative, enrichment, and regenerative standpoint. The initial stance of regenerative futures at DOrSU is environment-centered and biodiversity-focused, but there is a need to lay down key steps to articulate such direction in the university’s three interdependent divisions. The paper proposes a pyramid model of the university's regenerative vision, mission, and values and emphasizes the need to teach regenerative futures as contents, outcomes, and values. Regeneration must be adapted as a vision, mission, and core value, and the academic community must collectively define the operationality of these critical terms.</p> Jhonnel P. Villegas, Roy G. Ponce Copyright (c) 2024 Jhonnel P. Villegas, Roy G. Ponce https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/169 Mon, 10 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Diminishing mangrove forest structures in Davao City, Philippines https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/186 <p style="text-align: justify;">The decline of mangrove coverage across the Philippines to 50% of its original coverage in present years has, led to significant reductions of ecological functions to fisheries and benefits to man. The mangrove forest in Davao City was assessed for its taxonomic list, Importance Value Index, abundance and distribution of mangrove regenerations, forest structure, and species diversity status. The study was conducted in Barangay Bunawan, Lasang, Panacan, Matina Aplaya, 76-A, and Bago Aplaya. All data were gathered by establishing sampling plots (10m x 10m) using the modified transect-plot method. Overall, a total of 34 mangrove species were listed, of which 21 were identified as true mangroves and 13 as mangrove associates. The 21 mangrove species were very low in species richness (54%). Importance Value Index showed that <em>Avicennia marina, Rhizophora apiculata, </em>and <em>Sonneratia alba</em>, respectively, as dominant mangrove species. The mangrove regenerations were in poor condition (&lt;0.50) while relative abundances of growth stages consisted of mature stands at 46.04%, saplings with 27.78%, and seedlings with 26.18%. General diversity indices obtained a low value on the Shannon-Wiener diversity index (<em>H'</em>=1.42) and an average value on the species evenness index (E=0.61), all indicating stressful and unstable mangrove forests. Thus, the mangrove forest ecosystem has imbalances and eventually, only certain species would survive.</p> John Glen P. Seniel, Lea A. Jimenez, Emily S. Antonio Copyright (c) 2024 John Glen P. Seniel, Lea A. Jimenez, Emily S. Antonio https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/186 Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Copepod distribution and diversity in the coastal areas of Ban-ao and Lambajon, Davao Oriental, Philippines: Environmental influences and conservation implications https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/185 <p style="text-align: justify;">Copepods are essential components of marine ecosystems, facilitating energy transfer within these complex systems. The study investigates copepod diversity and distribution in Ban-ao and Lambajon coastal areas in Baganga, Davao Oriental, highlighting the environmental factors influencing copepod populations. Four copepod families representing different orders were identified, with Harpacticoida, Calanoida, and Cyclopoida prevalent in both sites, while Misophrioida was exclusive to Lambajon. Physico-chemical parameters such as dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, salinity, sediment composition, water depth, and temperature were analyzed to understand their correlation with copepod density. The study reveals variations in copepod density and abundance between the sites, with Lambajon showing a higher total density (49 ind/cm³) compared to Ban-ao (35 ind/cm³). The Pearson correlation matrix illustrates complex relationships between copepod density and environmental parameters in each site. In Ban-ao, strong positive correlations were found between copepod density and DO (r = 0.65) and temperature (r = 0.36). In Lambajon, positive correlations existed between water depth and copepod density (r = 0.20). Both sites exhibit low copepod diversity overall, potentially due to anthropogenic pressures. These findings emphasize the need for further research to understand the interactions between environmental factors and copepod diversity, essential for effective conservation and management strategies in these coastal ecosystems.</p> Hanelen T. Pislan, Cirilo O. Ybañez Copyright (c) 2024 Hanelen T. Pislan, Cirilo O. Ybañez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/185 Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Estimating tourism losses due to COVID-19 Pandemic: The case of Puerto Princesa underground river, Philippines https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/189 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study estimated the economic losses of Puerto Princesa Underground River (PPUR) caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The PPUR in Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines is part of the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park (PPSRNP) and is recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The lost tourist arrivals caused declining PPUR revenues, affected the local economy, and posed a potential threat to PPSRNP’s environment. The Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) was used to estimate the revenue and tourist arrivals while the Simple Exponential Smoothing (SES) was used to estimate PPUR expenses. The results revealed that the PPUR lost Php 172,997,905.00 which was attributed to the foregone 281,441 international tourists and 335,687 domestic tourists from 2020-2021. The PPUR management could expect Php 2,230.56 as revenue per potential tourists, an increase in revenue of roughly Php 96.7 million, an increase in international tourist arrivals, and a decrease in domestic tourist arrivals from 2022-2024 had there been no pandemic. Thus, PPUR management should forge active collaboration with different stakeholders for sustainable operation in times of economic disaster.</p> Jhayvan Eve R. Quitoy, Danielle Anne C. Garcia, Rodelio F. Subade, Louie Marie T. Eluriaga Copyright (c) 2024 Jhayvan Eve R. Quitoy, Danielle Anne C. Garcia, Rodelio F. Subade, Louie Marie T. Eluriaga https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/189 Mon, 17 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluation of shrimp-associated species in abandoned ponds in Mati City, Philippines https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/193 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study aimed to identify, characterize, and evaluate the biodiversity of shrimp-associated species in abandoned shrimp ponds, specifically assessing the trophic levels of bycatch species in Barangay Dahican, Mati City. Using a scoop net, researchers collected macrobenthic samples from Maitum, Lahusan, and Butuasan, finding 1,528 individuals with varying species compositions namely: <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> (Nile tilapia), <em>Coenobita cavipes</em> (Land hermit crab), <em>Canarium labiatum</em> (Plicate conch), <em>Rochia nilotica</em> (Commercial top), <em>Clithon oualaniense</em> (Guamanian nerite), <em>Cerithium coralium</em> (Coral cerith), and <em>Callinectes sapidus</em> (Blue crab). <em>Cerithium coralium</em> was the most abundant species with 70% relative abundance, followed by <em>Clithon oualaniense</em>, with 29%. In contrast, the least abundant species were the <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> and <em>Canarium labiatum</em>, with 1% relative abundance. Moreover, biodiversity indices revealed that Lahusan 1 (<em>H' </em>= 0.731; D=0.46) and Butuasan (<em>H' </em>= 0.714; D = 0.5) had higher biodiversity, whereas Lahusan 2 had the lowest (<em>H'</em> = 0.318; D = 0.15). In addition, there were also significant differences in terms of species abundance (df = 6, MS = 34.18, <em>F </em>= 6.02, <em>P </em>= 0.000) and none in terms of site locations (df = 3, MS = 18.71, <em>F</em>=2.08, <em>P</em>= 0.188). The study results showed that these associated species were mainly benthic and came from the nearby environment. Providing good management for the abandoned shrimp ponds in the area could mean reverting them to their original state to provide a habitat for other organisms.</p> Jason C. Pilotos, Yam Nesa B. Bualan Copyright (c) 2024 Jason C. Pilotos, Yam Nesa B. Bualan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/193 Thu, 20 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaf extract as biostimulant to enhance growth and yield of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/194 <p style="text-align: justify;">Overreliance on synthetic agricultural inputs, such as inorganic fertilizers and pesticides that pose health and environmental risks has led to a continuous quest for more sustainable and ecologically sound approaches to crop production. This study explored using Moringa Leaf Extract (MLE) as a natural plant-based biostimulant to enhance the productivity of bitter gourd. It investigated the effects of foliar MLE application on the growth, compared to water and ethanol as solvents. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications and five treatments: T1- 0 Application; T2- AVRDC Recommended Rate of Fertilizer (RRF) + Tap Water Spray; T3- RRF + Tap Water Spray; T4- RRF + MLE (water solvent); and T5- RRF + MLE (ethanol solvent). Data on vegetative growth, flowering, yield, and yield components were analyzed using ANOVA, while the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was used to compare differences in treatment means. Results showed that except for vine and fruit length, MLE application significantly improved most attributes of bitter gourd, including days to 50% flowering, number of marketable fruits and fruits per plant, and average fruit weight and yield. Ethanol as a solvent for MLE yielded the best results, although statistical analyses revealed no significant differences between the two extracting solvents. The application of MLE, regardless of the solvents used, proved to be an effective biostimulant offering an alternative and environmentally friendly approach to enhance the productivity of bitter gourd.</p> Melrose G. Pusta, Erna S. Macusi Copyright (c) 2024 Melrose G. Pusta, Erna S. Macusi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/194 Thu, 20 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Technical efficiency of State Universities and Colleges (SUCs) in the Philippines: A Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Approach https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/195 <p style="text-align: justify;">This study utilizes data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the technical efficiency of 101 state universities and colleges (SUCs) in the Philippines. Using panel data from 2017 to 2021, it employs the output-oriented Constant Returns to Scale (CRS) and Variable Returns to Scale (VRS) models of DEA, considering two (2) inputs like faculty numbers and financial resources (personnel services, Maintenance, and Other Operating Expenses or MOOE, capital outlay), and measuring two (2) outputs through the total number of student enrollment and the total number of graduates. The findings reveal that out of the 101 SUCs in Region XI, only eight are deemed efficient under the output-orientated CRS model, whereas 11 are identified as efficient under the VRS model. This variance in results between the 2 DEA models employed can be attributed to their inherent methodologies: CRS tends to yield lower efficiency scores, while VRS tends to produce higher efficiency scores. The findings contribute to discussions on higher education efficiency, providing valuable insights for policymakers, administrators, and stakeholders. The study also lays the groundwork for future research on technical efficiency and productivity factors in SUCs, facilitating targeted interventions and advancements in the Philippines's higher education landscape.</p> Maria Christina B. Condez Copyright (c) 2024 Maria Christina B. Condez https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0 https://davaoresearchjournal.ph/index.php/main/article/view/195 Fri, 14 Jun 2024 00:00:00 +0000